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List of 12 Countries In South America (2019)

There are 12 Countries in South America, it also has 3 dependent territories in South America. three dependent territories are the Falkland Islands of the United Kingdom, South Georgia and the South Sandwich island of the United Kingdom.


South America is the fourth largest continent in the world by area and it is the fifth largest continent in population. it has estimated 430 million people. Brazil is the largest country in the continent by land and population and Suriname is the smallest South American country. 90 % of the South Americans are Christian and they follow Christianity.


How Many Countries are in South America?




List of Countries in South America- 



     Country                                                                        Capital

    
     Brazil                                                                           Brasilia


     Suriname                                                                     Paramaribo


     Colombia                                                                     Bogota


     Guyana                                                                        Georgetown


     Peru                                                                             Lima


     Chile                                                                            Santiago


     Argentina                                                                    Buenos Aires


     Paraguay                                                                     Asuncion


     Uruguay                                                                      Montevideo


     Bolivia                                                                        Sucre


     Venezuela                                                                   Caracas


     Ecuador                                                                      Quito


History of South America-  


At least 15,000 years ago, humans migrated from the territory which is present-day Russia to South America by Bering Strait. it is the first time when human are inhabited in South America. humans also migrated through North America by the Isthmus of Panama (Narrow strip of land present between the Carribean Sea and the Pacific Ocean) which is connecting North and South America.

  • Civilization in South America-
     
    Around 9000 BC, humans began to cultivating squashes, chili pepper and beans which is a symbol of living in South America. the human also cultivating cassava, manioc, yuca for their food and this is the beginnings of civilization in South America.


As humans start growing their food, this also increases the beginning of different civilization in different parts of South America. this civilization was started Norte Chico, on the Peruvian Coast (which is a republic of Peru in western South America). Norte Chico developed a trade network and increases the agriculture process. After Norte, Chavin followed him up to 900 BC. Similarly on the different part of the continent, different civilization making their governance. Around 100 BC- 700 AD, Moche (400 BC-800 AD), Paracas and Nazca developed their governance in Peru. Some other Cultures which are growing in the continent: Canaris ( Ecuador), Chimu empire (1300-1470, Peru), Muisca (Columbia), Huari Empire (600-1200, Central and Northern Peru), The Inca civilization (Andres region 1438 to 1533).


  • European Immigration in South America- 
         
      In 1494, Two European powers of that time, Portugal and Spain on the search of new land and resources discovered a South America soil. they made a treaty that an imaginary line will be drawn at 46 37' W, in which the west of the line belongs to Spanish and East of the line belongs to Portuguese. Both the superpower of that time start making Colonies, using resources of South America, lands of continent, etc.

Some European disease also came to the continent like Smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus which causing a major problem among native people of the continent and causing several deaths. due to this problem, the people in forced labor were decreasing so, Spanish people start bringing African slaves in South America. After that, the Spanish tried to change native cultural practices of people in South America. Spanish wants everyone would speak their languages, follow their religion. they were trying to develop interbred between Spaniards and Native Peoples, so that they reproduce a person of combined European and indigenous American descent. but they are only partially successful on these type of Activity.

  • Slavery-
          
     Native peoples of America, along with the African slaves were forced to work in plantations and mines. The African slaves were brought to South America in large numbers, which begin in 1502. The African slave's main destinations were the Caribbean and Brazil colonies. An estimated 5 million slaves from Africa came to Brazil from 1502 to 1866. The Spaniards, Portuguese and English began to import more slave from Africa because the native people of the Continent are unfit for labor, they are suffering from Diseases and they are ill.

  • Independence in South America-

          A fight for freedom was begun by Napoleon's empire and they start a major Military conflict between napoleons empire and Bourbon Spain. this Napoleans war changes the situation of different  Colonies of Spanish and Portuguese. Napolean starts capturing Spanish and invading Portuguese. they capture king Ferdinand vii of Spain. due to Napoleons, the Spanish administration starts appointing Juntas in the place of the captured king. ( Juntas is chosen by local administrative ) many Spanish  Colonies is appointing Juntas to rule in place of the Spanish king. this will lead to them to the Spanish American wars of Independence between patriots. this war is proceeding because there are some royalties, who supported Spanish over the Americans but Spanish gave all its power to juntas in different colonies. Later the Independence of South America was achieved by Jose de San Martin ( Argentina) and Simon Bolivar (Venezuela). these two leaders led their army on different parts of South America and Cornered different Spanish army and made a South America independent.

Geography of South America-  

South America is a continent which is present mostly on Southern Hemisphere. it is bordered on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the West by the Pacific Ocean. the border of the Continent in the North-west is along Colombia-Panama border, including the east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus. South America has the largest river in the World by volume.,The Amazon River. it has the longest mountain Range, the Andes. largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest. The worlds highest Waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela. Highest single drop Waterfall in Guyana, Kaieteur falls. South America has major mineral resources, which are gold, silver, copper, Iron, Ore, Tin and petroleum.

South America also has some nearby islands on their Continent. Curacao, Trinidad, Tobago, Bonaire, Aruba, federal dependencies of Venezuela. some other Islands that also comes under South America are Galapagos Islands in Ecuador, Easter Island ( Chile), Robinson Crusoe Island.

Language-

The most spoken language of South America is Spanish and Portuguese, approx 200 million people in South America speak these two languages. Dutch, French, English and some native languages are spoken in the Continent. Portuguese is mostly spoken by Brazilians, Dutch is an official language of Suriname.in Guyana, English is the official language, while Portuguese, Chinese, Hindustani is also a language in Guyana. French is the official language Guiana and it is the second language in Brazil. there are many different languages are also spoken in a different part of South America, like Quechna in Peru, Ecuador, Argentina, Chile, and Colombia, Guarani in Paraguay, Aymara in Bolivia, Peru. Italian in Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, and chile.
































       

   




    

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